分类目录归档:其他

众生本来成佛,何故复有一切无明?

众生本来成佛,何故复有一切无明?
《圆觉经》:于是金刚藏菩萨。在大众中。即从座起。顶礼佛足。右绕三匝。长跪叉手。而白佛言。大悲世尊。善为一切诸菩萨众。宣扬如来圆觉清净大陀罗尼因地法行渐次方便。与诸众生开发蒙昧。在会法众。承佛慈诲。幻翳朗然。慧目清净。世尊若诸众生本来成佛。何故复有一切无明。若诸无明。众生本有。何因缘故。如来复说本来成佛。十方异生。本成佛道。后起无明。一切如来。何时复生一切烦恼唯愿不舍无遮大慈。为诸菩萨开秘密藏。及为末世一切众生。得闻如是修多罗教了义法门。永断疑悔。作是语已。五体投地。如是三请。终而复始

(金刚藏菩萨代我们向世尊问了一个非常重要问题,这个问题也是反复被很多同修问倒的。

这个问题就是:假如众生本来成佛,那么为什么又会有无明呢?这个无明如果众生原本就有,那么为什么又说众生本来成佛呢?

如果说众生本来是佛,后来起无明障碍,那么一切如来什么时候、会不会再次出现无明而变成众生?)

尔时世尊。告金刚藏菩萨言。善哉善哉。善男子。汝等乃能为诸菩萨及末世众生。问于如来甚深秘密究竟方便。是诸菩萨最上教诲了义大乘。能使十方修学菩萨及诸末世一切众生。得决定信。永断疑悔。汝今谛听。当为汝说。时金刚藏菩萨奉教欢喜。及诸大众默然而听

(世尊对金刚藏菩萨代末法众生询问这种问题表示欣慰,告诉大家这个问题问得是佛法中最为核心的内容。是了义大乘,能够让大家得决定信,永断疑悔。)

善男子。一切世界始终生灭。前后有无。聚散起止。念念相续。循环往复。种种取舍。皆是轮回。未出轮回。而辨圆觉。彼圆觉性即同流转。若免轮回。无有是处。

(这个世界有始有终,有生灭、有时间前后,有形成、有存在、有败坏、有消失、有种种妄想、有循环往复、有种种分析、判断、有种种选择,这都是在轮回之中。在轮回中分辨圆觉、分辨真如本性、分辨菩提,那么这个真如本性、菩提,也有了流转轮回。想免除这种轮回流转,是不可能的。)

譬如动目能摇湛水。又如定眼。犹回转火。云驶月运舟行岸移亦复如是。善男子。诸旋未息。彼物先住。尚不可得。何况轮转生死垢心。曾未清净。观佛圆觉而不旋复。是故汝等便生三惑

(就如同,转动眼睛,眼睛看到的景物,就成了动的。云彩飘动,你会认为月亮在移动,你在船上,船行的时候你会认为岸在移动,一个道理。这些轮回流转没有停止,想让对照物停止运动,尚不可能,又怎么能够以轮回中种种不清静的思维、判断来观察圆觉而落于有得有失、有始有终呢?

我们再说个比喻,大家都做过转椅吧?转椅转动,人坐在上面看到周围的景物怎么样?都是动的、不停的旋转。对吧?你只要还在这个转椅上旋转,周围的景物总是动的,和真实的情况不一样,真实的景物是静止的。轮回就是在转椅上,我们认为有生有灭、有成有坏、有前后始终、有取舍判断,就是在转椅上旋转。

我们在轮回这个转椅上呆得久了,会看什么都是动的,会看什么都是有始有终,有时间前后,有形成和毁灭。我们理解不了什么是无生无灭,因为我们还没有停止轮回,看到的一切都是虚幻的、旋转的。就如同转椅旋转的时候,看到周围的景物都在旋转一样。

除非我们停止旋转,否则我们不能看到真实的情况,不能看到稳定的、永恒的事物。这就是“诸旋未息”,想让周围的景物先停止,是不可能的。轮回未止、妄想执著没有放下,想了解真实的菩提也是不可能的。我们会对菩提有种种的错误观念和迷惑。)

其中有三:

善男子。譬如患翳妄见空花。患翳若除。不可说言。此翳已灭何时更起一切诸翳。何以故。翳花二法非相待故。亦如空花灭于空时。不可说言虚空何时更起空花。何以故。空本无花非起灭故。生死涅槃同于起灭。妙觉圆照离于花翳。善男子。当知虚空非是暂有亦非暂无。况复如来圆觉随顺而为虚空平等本性

(如同患了眼病的眼睛看到虚空中有本来不存在的花朵一样。如果眼病除灭,那么他不会问,这个疾患什么时候会再有?花什么时候会再开放?不会的。因为这个眼疾和虚空中的花朵非是存在对等的。空中本来没有花朵,虚空本来没有起灭,更没有花朵开放凋谢。

生死、涅槃就是那虚空中本来不存在的花朵在开放与消失,而妙觉圆照是远离眼疾的法宝。

说有生死、有涅槃、非涅槃还都是在谈论花朵的开放和消失。而不是虚空。虚空本来没有花朵,也没有开放和消失。

当知虚空尚不是一会儿有,一会儿没有,何况如来菩提本性,更不会有终始、有生灭。)

善男子。如销金矿金非销有既已成金不重为矿。经无穷时。金性不坏。不应说言本非成就。如来圆觉亦复如是。善男子一切如来妙圆觉心本无菩提及与涅槃。亦无成佛及不成佛。无妄轮回及非轮回

(如同开采金矿,金子不是在冶炼之后才制造出来的,而是本来存在在金矿当中,一旦提炼为金,则历劫不坏。不可以说本来没有金,是冶炼之后才有的金子。这个不对。

一切众生菩提本性也是如此。众生本有,但我们因为有无明障碍,有轮回流转的观念,有时间前后、有成住坏空的概念、有思维判断、有推理取舍,就无法了解真如本性的不生不灭。涅槃就是消除无明根本,但不是说菩提是涅槃之后才有的。

一切如来圆觉妙心、菩提本性,本来没有所谓菩提、非菩提、成佛、不成佛、轮回、非轮回这种观念。因为这都是轮回见,都是在摇动我们的眼睛,导致我们看到动的东西,都是在转椅上旋转,看到周围的世界也在旋转。

诸佛是下了“转椅”的人,看到周围的世界是真实的、永恒的。)

善男子。但诸声闻所圆境界身心语言皆悉断灭。终不能至彼之亲证所现涅槃。何况能以有思惟心测度如来圆觉境界。如取萤火烧须弥山。终不能着。以轮回心。生轮回见。入于如来大寂灭海。终不能至。是故我说一切菩萨及末世众生先断无始轮回根本。

(即便是声闻达到的境界,也是身心语言断灭。但尚不能亲证涅槃。何况能够以思维之心、来测度如来圆觉的境界。如同取萤火虫的火焰来焚烧须弥山,那是不可能的。以轮回心,生轮回见,想进入如来圆觉境界也一样是不可能的。所以大家应该做的是先断轮回的根本:无明。)

善男子。有作思惟从有心起。皆是六尘。妄想缘气。非实心体。已如空花。用此思惟辨于佛境。犹如空花复结空果。展转妄想。无有是处。善男子。虚妄浮心。多诸巧见。不能成就圆觉方便。如是分别。非为正问。

(有思维推理判断的心,是我们六根造就的妄想,聚集起来的,我们误以为是自己的心理活动。其实本来不是我们的真心,甚至根本是虚幻的,就如同我们眼睛患病看到虚空中不存在的花朵一样。用这个心来思维体会佛境界。那就是空花结果,妄上加妄。根本不成立。转地藏论坛

虚妄心,多种种的机巧,根本不是成就圆觉的方便善巧,这样的分别判断,不是正确的问题,出发点就错了。)

佛经中对于 戒淫欲 的开示汇集

佛经中对于 戒淫欲 的开示汇集

★阿难!云何摄心,我名为戒?若诸世界六道众生,其心不淫,则不随其生死相续。汝修三昧,本出尘劳。淫心不除,尘不可出。纵有多智,禅定现前。如不断淫,必落魔道。上品魔王、中品魔民、下品魔女,彼等诸魔,亦有徒众,各各自谓成无上道。我灭度后末法之中,多此魔民,炽盛世间,广行贪淫,为善知识,令诸众生落爱见坑失菩提路。汝教世人修三摩地,先断心淫是名如来先佛世尊,第一决定清净明诲。是故阿难!若不断淫修禅定者,如蒸砂石,欲其成饭,经百千劫只名热砂。何以故?此非饭本,砂石成故。汝以淫身,求佛妙果。纵得妙悟,皆是淫根。根本成淫,轮转三途,必不能出。如来涅盘,何路修证。必使淫机身心俱断,断性亦无,于佛菩提斯可希冀。如我此说,名为佛说。不如此说,即波旬说。 ——《楞严经卷六》

★阿难!是修行人,若不断淫及与杀生,出三界者,无有是处。当观淫欲,犹如毒蛇,如见怨贼。 ——《楞严经卷八》

★世尊!如宝莲香比丘尼,持菩萨戒,私行淫欲。妄言「行淫」非杀非偷,无有业报。发是语已,先于女根生大猛火,后于节节猛火烧然,堕无间狱。 ——《楞严经卷八》

★淫习交接,发于相磨。研磨不休,如是故有大猛火光,于中发动。如人以手自相摩触,暖相现前。二习相然,故有铁床铜柱诸事。是故十方一切如来,色目行淫,同名欲火。菩萨见欲,如避火坑。 ——《楞严经卷八》

★贪爱淫欲甚鄙秽,能生苦恼丧天趣。习欲之人离多闻,名为损减智慧者。耽着爱欲为盲人,便能伤害于父母。亦复能害持戒者,是故应当弃舍欲。 ——《月灯三昧经卷八》

★汝负我命,我还汝债,以是因缘,经百千劫,常在生死。汝爱我心,我怜汝色,以是因缘,经百千劫,常在缠缚。唯杀盗淫三为根本。以是因缘,业果相续。 ——《楞严经卷四》

★淫之为病,受殃无量,以微积大,渐致烧身,自陷于道亦及他人,不致究竟。犹自饮毒复饮他人,是故说淫不可纵。 ——《出曜经卷四》

★自秽妻聚,惑志女色,荒迷于欲,妖蛊姿态,其变万端。薄智之夫,浅见之士,睹其如此,不觉微渐。遂回志没身,从彼魃魅,邪巧之辞。或危亲杀君,吝色情荡,忿嫉怠慢,散心盲冥,等行禽兽。自古世来,无不由之杀身灭宗。是以沙门独而不双,清洁其志,以道是务。奉此明戒,为君即保四海,为臣即忠。以仁养民,即父法明,子孝父慈,夫信妇贞。优婆塞优婆夷执行如是,世世逢佛,见法得道。 ——《孝子经》

★ 无耻若驼驴,不堪极秽恶。斯人少智慧,不悟罪根深。奔竞向女人,如狗便粪秽。臭秽不可乐,愚痴所爱重。不知淫欲过,如盲不见色。愚痴着淫欲,如犬奔粪秽。…… 愚人贪爱味,于美起缠缚。何异厕中虫,宁知是不净。智者得解脱,女色不可染。见彼生警怖,弃舍如坏尸。 ——《大乘日子王所问经》

★大王!当知丈夫亲近女人之时,即是亲近恶道之法,此是丈夫第一过患。 ——《大宝积经卷九十七》

★大王!当知以此因缘,于己父母弃背恩养,于他女人,尊重承事,种种供给,无疲厌心。即是成就地狱之本,此是丈夫第二过患。 ——《大宝积经卷九十七》

★爱为网、为胶、为泉、为藕根、能为众生障;为盖、为胶、为守卫 ……为乱草、为絮,从此世至他世,从他世至此世,往来流驰,无不转时。 ——《杂阿含经卷三十五》

★若诸世界,一切种性;卵生、胎生、化生、湿生,皆因淫欲而正性命。 ——《圆觉经》

★色缚于凡夫,五阴悉羁系,生能缚于物,死缚亦复然,今身至后世,未始不系缚,轮回羁缚中,数数受生死。 ——《大庄严论经卷五》

★众生欲脱生死免诸轮回,先断贪欲,及除爱渴。 ——《圆觉经》

★见色心迷惑,不惟观无常,愚以为美善,安知其非真?以淫乐自裹,譬如蚕作茧。智者能断弃,不眄除众苦。心念放逸者,见淫以为净,恩爱意盛增,从是造牢狱。觉意灭淫者,常念欲不净,从是出邪狱,能断老死患。 ——《法句譬喻经卷四》

★昼夜念嗜欲,意走不念休,见女欲污露,想灭则无忧。 ——《法句譬喻经卷四》

★拘晱弥国有摩因提,生女端正,将诣佛所,愿给箕帚。佛言:「汝以女为好耶?」曰:「从头至足,周遍观之,无不好也。」佛言:「惑哉肉眼!吾观之从头至足,无一好耶。若头上有发,但是毛象马之尾,亦皆尔也。发下有髑髅,但是骨屠家猪头,亦尔也。头中有脑者如泥腥臊逆,鼻下之着地莫能蹈者。目者是胞决之纯汁。鼻中有涕,口但有唾。腹脏肝肺皆亦腥臊,肠胃膀胱但盛屎尿,腐臭难论,腹为韦囊,裹诸不净。四肢手足,骨骨相拄,筋连皮□,但恃气息以动作之。譬如木人,机关作之,既毕解剥其体,节节相离,首足狼籍。人亦如是,有何等好,而云少双?」 ——《优填王经》

★菩萨观诸众生,愚痴颠倒,耽嗜淫欲,于母姊妹尚生凌逼,况复于彼余众生等?菩萨摩诃萨观是事已,作如是念:苦哉世间!乃能容止非圣之聚,恶业无愧,充满其中。复作是念:咄哉苦哉!如是众生,曾处母胎,卧息停止,生由产门,如何无耻,共行斯事?如是众生深为大失,极可怜愍,种种过患,极可诃责。何以故?为贪瞋痴之所害故…… 譬如野干,于彼冢间,为诸群狗之所博逐逃迸走避,临大峻崖穷途所逼夜中嗥叫,如是童子,彼诸众生,亦复如是同于野干……譬如生盲群狗逼逐临大坑涧,如是童子,彼诸众生,亦复如是同于生盲……譬如溷猪行处,粪秽兼又食噉初无厌恶,如是童子,彼诸众生,亦复如是同于溷猪。如是众生,极可怜愍,淫恼所逼于亲非亲,为诸烦恼之所加害。菩萨摩诃萨观是事已,于彼众生发起大悲,我当为彼宣说妙法,令其永断诸欲烦恼。 ——《大宝积经卷四十一》

★汝等昔或作我父,我或与汝昔为母;互作父母及兄弟,云何于此生欲心?我或往昔杀汝等,汝等或复杀我来;各作怨雠互相杀,云何于此生欲想? ——《月上女经》

★男女意惑乱,精血共和合;如虫生臭泥,此中生亦尔。 ——《密严经卷中》

★若众生所有苦生,彼一切皆以爱欲为本,欲生、欲集、欲因、欲缘而生苦!……佛即说偈言:若无世间爱念者,则无忧苦尘劳患。一切忧苦消灭尽,犹如莲华不着水。 ——《杂阿含经卷三十二》

★淫欲臭秽根不净,过后常增业苦深。譬如广大不净坑,满盛粪坏多臭秽。亦似冢间□胀尸,淫欲之人亦如是。复似蝇虫咂疮肿,驴马奔眠粪秽中。猪狗食啖臭鱼等,耽爱女人亦如是。 ——《大乘日子王所问经》

★断爱除其欲,竭河无流兆。能明此爱本,是谓名苦际。断爱除其欲者,爱之为病,众患之本,以拔爱本,枝叶不滋,于中自拔,永断无余。欲本自灭,更不复生,由爱生欲流,犹如驶河,漂溺生类,亿千万众,丧其命根,不得全济。河竭之后,众生往来,无形伤害,是故说曰,断爱除其欲,竭河无流兆也。能明此爱本,是谓名苦际者,爱为形质,欲为枝叶,痴为润津,若彼学人思惟妙观,能断此者,超越苦际,是故说曰,能明此爱本,是谓名苦际也。 ——《出曜经卷二十三》

★不淫色者,不犯他妻,所在化生莲花之中。 ——《戒德香经》

★因爱则生忧,因爱便有畏。能离恩爱者,永断无怖畏。 ——《撰集百缘经卷四》

★因爱故生苦,如是应舍爱。当乐于独处,犹如犀一角。 ——《金色王经》

★众生随爱想,以爱想为住,以不知爱故,则为死方便。若知所爱者,不于彼生爱,彼此无所有,他人莫能说。 ——《杂阿含经卷三十八》

The Origin of the World

The Origin of the World It is common for people who are exploring religion to ask questions regarding the origins of the world. Since time immemorial people have speculated about this question. Most religions will teach that the world was created by a Creator; – God. For many people, this seems to be satisfactory. However, if one seriously thinks about it, this answer is merely a placebo – something that does not have any real value other than to satisfy the incessant queries of a questioner. To say that the world started with a Creator God is no better than to say that the origin of yoghurt is milk, or the origin of a plant is the seed. Simplistic minds do not seem to have a need to see further back beyond that. The reason for this is that our mind is conditioned to see things in a linear manner; that is having a starting point and an end. This article has a start and an end, so is the table before you and so on. However, there are many, many things in this universe that have no beginning and no end. Look at the sky above you. It may seem like a blue or black sheet but it really goes on forever. It is the same with time – it has no beginning and no end. This is how Buddhists understand the origins of the world as taught by the Buddha.

It is interesting to note that the Buddha described events like how a universe forms in space. More interestingly, the Buddha’s explanations corresponds very closely to the scientific view. In the Aganna Sutta, the Buddha described the universe being destroyed and then re-evolving into its present form over a period of countless millions of years. The first life formed on the surface of the water and again, over countless millions of years evolved from simple into complex organisms. Eventually, the universe is again destroyed and another arises in its place. All these processes are without beginning or end, and are set in motion by natural causes. Our present universe merely occupies one slot in this beginning-less and endless sequence of time. Such explanations are a quantum leap away from the simplistic genesis stories of theistic religions and are indicative of the great insight and wisdom of the Buddha’s enlightened mind.

“Now there comes a time, Vasettha, when after a long period of time this world expands. When the world expands beings
for the most part fall from the realm of Radiance and come here; and they exist made of mind, feeding on joy, self-luminous, moving through the air, constantly beautiful; thus they remain for a long, long time. Now at that time, all had become one world of water dark, and of darkness that maketh blind. No moon nor sun appeared no stars were seen, nor constellations, neither was night manifest nor day, neither months nor half-months, neither years nor seasons, neither female nor male. Beings were reckoned just as beings only. And to those beings, Vasettha, sooner or later after a long time, earth with its savors was spread out in the waters. Even as a scum forms on the surface of boiled milky rice that is cooling, so did the earth appear. ~ Aganna Sutta”

Even so, questions regarding the origins of the world and such were not considered important by the Buddha and not made out to be a big deal as in other religions. In a famous story, a man called Malunkyaputta approached the Buddha and demanded that the Buddha explain the origin of the universe before he would become a disciple of the Buddha. Then the Buddha said that he would not go into a discussion of the origin of the Universe. To him, gaining knowledge about such matters was a waste of time because a man’s immediate problem was his own suffering and his task was to liberate himself from the present state of affairs. To illustrate this, the Buddha related the parable of a man who was shot by a poisoned arrow. This foolish man refused to have the arrow removed until he was told who shot the arrow, what he looks like, the kind of wood the arrow was made of and so on. The Buddha said that before the man could learn such information, he would be dead. Similarly, our immediate task is to be enlightened, not to speculate about the metaphysical. Thus, the Buddha’s teachings centre around mankind and emphasises the methods by which he can liberate himself. These teachings are encapsulated in the Four Noble Truths.

Buddhist Answers